CONCEPT OF LEARNING
An Earlier View of Learning. An earlier view of learning regarded the teacher as a dispenser of information and the children as the passive absorbers. It was believed that the central nervous system could be developed through experience in much the same way as the muscular system. Reading and other communicable language skills were taught principally by isolated drill in both phonics and phonetics. all this rendered learning somewhat distasteful task for the learner.
A later View of Learning. A later view regarded learning. "As a special form of activity in which children responded specifically to particular stimuli in certain prescribed situations." According to this view, commonly referred to as stimulus-response psychology, learning occurs as a result of modification of the synoptic connections of the neurones or as a synthetic process of forms of reflex behaviour. Accordingly, the subject matter and the skills to be learnt should be organised specifically for instructional purposes. The stimulus-response theory, developed by E.L. Thorndike, made use of certain lawa of learning, namely readiness, exercise, and effect. Motivation is primarily extrinsic and frequently places emphasis on rewards and penalties instead of the activity itself or its purpose.
A Recent View Of Learning. One of the recently developed views of learning is based on the biological concept. Accordingly, the living organism develops by the process of individualising from the central (central nervous system) to the peripheral areas (arms, legs, hands, feet). This view of learning is popularly known as the organismic purposive theory. It is also referred to as one of the field theories of learning.
Learning defined. Learning has been explained and defined in a number of ways. A few of the view regarding the nature of learning are given below:
Munn,s view. According to munn,s "learning is more or less permanet incremental modification of behaviour which results from activity, special training or observation."
View of Crow and Crow. According to crow and crow Learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes."
Skinner,s View. According to skinner,s "Learning is both acquisition and retention.
View of Gates. According to Gates, " Learning is modification of behaviour through experience."
View of Deniel Bell. In the words of Deniel Bell,"learning is modification due to energies of organism and the environment impinging on the organism itself."